Introduction to PASCAL

Know Your Views Turbo Pascal

Menu Turbo Pascal
Turbo Pascal has 7 main menu of fruit consisting of: File, Edit, Run, Compile, Options, Debug, and Break / Watch. To select one from the menu that you can press the Alt + F (to call the file menu), or press Alt + [the first letter of the menu].
If you want to return to the main menu you can just press the F10 key, to move from one menu to another menu you can also press the right arrow or left arrow. For example when you are in the File menu to move to the Compile menu you can just use the right arrow key or left arrow, and you can also directly press the letter C. To close the menu you can use the Esc key. Actually be easier if lebh call a menu by using a hotkey, the following table is a hotkey that is used in turbo pascal:
KeyFunction Ekivalen menu
F1Enabling the help window. File / Save
F2Saving existing file in the editor.File / Load
F3 Calling the program into the editor.Run / Go to cursor
F4 Execute the program until the cursor position.Run / Trace into
F5 Increase or decrease the active window.Compile / Make
F6 Changing the active window.File / Pick
F7 Track down into subroutines.File / user screen
F8 Jumped the caller subroutine.Compile
F9 Activate command 'Make'Run / Program reset
F10 Moving from menu to the active window.
Alt + F1 Calling for help is the last window to read.
Alt + F3 Selecting a file to load.
Alt + F5 Shows the results of execution.
Alt + F6 Changing the contents of the active window.
Alt + F9 Compile the program.
Alt + B Break menu Enabling / Watch.
Alt + C Activate compile menu.
Alt + D Enabling debug menu.
Alt + E Enabling the editor.
Alt + F Activate menu option.
Alt + O Enabling the run menu.
Alt + R Mengaktifkan menu run.
Alt + X Out of Turbo Pascal and return to DOS.
Ctrl + F1 Displays the help menu language.
Ctrl + F2 Stop the correction.
Ctrl + F3 Displays the contents of the pile.Debug / Call Stack
Ctrl + F4 Calculating or change the variable values.Debug / Evaluate
Ctrl + F7 Adding watch expressions in the window.B / Add Watch
Ctrl + F8 Toggles Breakpoint B / Toggle breakpoint
Ctrl + F9 Running the program Run / Run
Ctrl + F10 Display screen version.

Well, that was a few existing hotkey in Turbo Pascal, now we live aja yah studying the menu in Turbo Pascal is.

  1. File menu: In the File menu lots to choose submenu suppose Load command / F3, which function to call the file that was saved, and many others.
  2. Submenu Load: This option is used to call the program from a folder or directory to the editor. In this submenu you can select another submenu by pressing the letter just before the submenu to go, for example you want to go to the New submenu, then press the letter you live N.
  3. Submenu Pick: This one option is used to take one of several programs that previously have been loaded into the Edit window. It is intended that we should not have to bother looking for him again in the submenu loads.
  4. 4. Submenu New: Program is in the editor will be deleted and the programs you write will be considered as a new program with NONAME.PAS name, this name can you change when you want it.
  5. Submenu Save [F2]: This option is used to store a program that already in the edit to the disk or folder, if a program is still NONAME.PAS then Turbo Pascal will ask you, what name would you give to programs that are saved it. Or you can also press the F2 key.
  6. Submenu Write to: This option is used to replace old programs with new programs (fancy term Overwrite ... ☺). If your program name already exists on the disk or folder so there is verification of Turbo Pascal for the change of name.
  7. Submenu Directory: This option is used to display the directory and file names you want. You can also use the Load option.
  8. Change submenu Dir: one option is used to display the directory currently in use and can also be used to replace the new directory name.
  9. Submenu OS shell: command is used for those who want to display but without the deadly DOS Pascalnya Turbo, to go back to Turbo Pascal, you live type "exit", but usually when you're making a program or edit a program of this command can not be implemented due to lack of memory capacity.
  10. Quit submenu [Alt + x]: The name is clear, this command is used to get out of Turbo Pascal and return to the DOS prompt. 
  11. Edit menu: Edit command is used to activate the Turbo Pascal editor.
  12. Run menu [Ctrl + F9]: This command is used to execute the program that you have created. You can also press Ctrl + F9 to execute your program.
  13. Reset Program submenu [Ctrl + F2]: This option is used to notify Turbo Pascal that you are finished with the correction-correction and initializing the debugger to another operation. This option is both liberating reminder that has been allocated and close all the files, but does not change the values change. This option is useful if you want to run the option File / OS shell.
  14. Submenu Go to Cursor [F4]: This option is used to start / continue the program execution starts from the position when the execution begins until the cursor is. If the cursor is on the statement that is executable, such as spaces or comment line, then the execution will be continued until the statement is executable.
  15. Submenu Trace Into [F7]: This command is used to execute the next line, if there is a call to a subroutine, then the tracking will start from the first statement of the subroutine. It also will contain the files or the units Include if possible.
  16. Submenu Step Over: Step over this way of working is similar to the Trace Into, except that if the statement is a procedure or function, then the entire subroutine will be done at once and the debugger will stop at the statement after the call to the subroutine.
  17. User submenu screen [Alt + F5]: In general, these commands are used to seeing the results of programs that have been compiled and we run. In this view the IDE [Integrated Debugger Environment] to move on when you run and debug programs. This command is also used by the File / OS shell.
Display User Screen...

  1. Compile menu [Alt + F9]: This command is used to compile the program or can we also say that the program we have made earlier in the pascal language be translated into computer language so that the computer is to understand just what we ordered.
  2. 19. Make submenu: This option is used to activate the make command, if the primary file that have been given the name, then this file will be compiled, if not the last file that was loaded in the editor will be compiled .. This option is useful if there are several programs that are physically separate but logically is a unity. 
  3. Submenu Build: This command is similar to the make command, except that this command builds its freely, while the make command will compile only the files that are used in addition to the file. 
  4.  Destination submenu [Memory]: This command is generally only serves to choose whether the results of compilation will be stored in the disk or folder as the file type. EXE or only in the main reminder will disappear the moment you get out of Turbo Pascal.
  5. Submenu Find Error: The name you would know, well this command is used to determine the location of errors when the program is run [run time error]. Location error is indicated by the format seg: off, for example 2BE0: FFD4. if you go back to the IDE, turbo pascal will place the cursor on the line where things go wrong. If you already moved the cursor at random then you can move the cursor back to the mistake by pressing Ctrl + Q + W.  
  6. Submenu Primary File: This command is used to declare that file. PAS will be compiled at the time make [F9] or build [Alt + C + B] is enabled. 
  7.  Get info submenu: Not any longer, this command is used to display information from the program window. PAS you're using, including the size of the source code [in the source and the line], the size of the file. EXE or. TPU in bytes and the data 
  8.  Menu Options: Options on this menu to configure functions to optimize the use of facilities at the turbo pascal. 
  9.  Submenu Compiler: This option is still much in it other commands such as limit checking, stack checking, etc., as you see in the picture above. eg checking limits [Range checking] is equal to the ($ R). now I'll try to explain one by one in order to more clearly from each of these use. 
  10.  Range checking [Off]: This command is used to turn on or turn off the checking line. If enabled, the compiler will generate code that will check the limit on the array index and string and also the value generated in a statement giving. This option is similar to the instructions the compiler ($ R).  
  11. Stack checking [On]: Used to turn on or turn off the error checking operations I / O. If enabled in the event of operating errors I / O process will be immediately stopped. If turned off, error code is stored in Result IO functions. This option is similar to the pointer compiler ($ I). 
  12.  Force far calls [Off]: Used to choose the type of procedure or the calling of functions that have been compiled. Model call can be far or near. This option is similar to the pointer compiler ($ F). 
  13.  Allign Data [Word]: Used to manage storage and constant change of type from byte to word or vice versa. This option is similar to the pointer compiler ($ A). 
  14.  Overlay Allowed [Off]: Enable or disable pembakitan Overlay code. This option is similar to the pointer compiler ($ O).
  15. 32. Var string checking [Strict]: Used to control how the string of data checks are used as parameters change. Options equal to the pointer compiler ($ V).
  16. Boolean Evaluation [Short Circuit]: Used to select the time code generation logic operations [Boolean operations] run. This option is similar to the pointer compiler ($ B).
  17. Numeric Processing [Software]: Used to select the code pembangkitn floating point operations [floating point] is supported by Turbo Pascal. This option is also equal to the pointer compiler ($ N)
  18. Emulation [On]: Enable or disable linking with the run - time to emulate the numeric processor 8087. This option equal to bookmark compiler ($ E)
  19. Debug Information [On]: Used to generate or not generate information at the time in the program in error. This option is similar to the pointer compiler ($ D).
  20. Local Symbol [On]: Used to enable or disable local information symbol.
  21. Conditional defines: Used to declare the bookmark berkondisi compiler.
  22. Memory sizes: Used to configure the map reminder. With the pointer compiler ($ M).
  23. Stack Size: The maximum stack segment size of 64 K with a standard 16 K.
  24. Low Heap limit: the minimum heap size standard is 0 K.
  25. High Heap limit: The maximum heap size is 655,360 bytes.
  26. Linker Options submenu is used to adjust the configuration built in linker.
  27. Business File [Off]: Determining how much information in the file folder maps will be generated. Map files will be placed in the directory. EXE with the suffix. MAP
  28. Segment: segment information [Name, Size, Beginning and End segment and class].
  29. Public: Information segment, all symbol names and addresses and enter the point of the program.
  30. Detailed: segement, the information symbol and point the program and enter the line number and module tables.
  31. Environment Options submenu is used to notify Turbo Pascal which can be found in the file that will be compiled, the link with equipped with help menus.
  32. Auto Save Config [Off]: Used to komfigurasi stop loss settings that you have done.
  33. Edit Auto Save [Off]: Used to prevent file loss caused by automatic storage when you use the Run / Step Over or Run / Run.
  34. Backup Files [On]: The standard, turbo pascal will generate backup files when you save the file. We used to see with. BAK
  35. Tab Size [2]: Used to adjust the size of the editor tab. The size allowed is 2 to 16 by default 8.
  36. Zoom Windows [Off]: If the right then on, the Edit Window, Watch, and the output will be expanded to a full screen.
  37. Screen Size [25 line]: Used to select the screen size. With the standard 25 rows, 43 rows [EGA], or 50 lines [VGA]. This option can only be activated if the hardware supports.
  38. Submenu Directories: Options menu is used to indicate the location of Turbo Pascal any directories necessary.
  39. Turbo directory: Used to find the configuration file [. TP] and the help file [Turbo.HLP].
  40. EXE & TPU directory: Used to save the file. EXE and. TPU. 
  41.  Directories include: Used to specify the directory containing the Include File.
  42. Unit Directories: Used to notify the TP where the files are units.  
  43. Object Directories: Used to specify the directory containing the file [. OBJ].
  44. Pick file name: Used to determine the name and location of the file pick. 
  45. Current picks file: Used to indicate the name and location of pick files, if any.
  46. Submenu Parameters: Used to provide command line parameters [Command Line parameters] in which programs will run.
  47. Save submenu Option: Used to store all the settings in the menu Compiler, Environment, and Directories in the configuration file [standardnya is TURBO.TP] 
  48. Retrieve Options submenu: Used to contain the configuration file previously saved with the save option. 
  49. Debug Menu: The options available in this menu is primarily used to track the values of change, find the location of a function or procedure, and others.
  50. Evaluate submenu [Ctrl + F4]: With this option you will be taken to a window with 3 box that allows you to write any name change / expression, showed the value of the change / phrase of the moment allows you to deliver new value to any change. 
  51. Call Stack submenu [Ctrl + F3]: When you are debugging, a window that shows the caller's list of procedures and functions will be visible. 
  52. Find submenu Procedure: Allows you to write the name of procedures and functions and then find the program you are enabled. 
  53. Submenu Integrated Debugging [On] If you selected On, debugging done using the IDE. 
  54. Submenu Stand Alone Debugging [Off] When set to Off, and compile / destination selected to Disk debug information will be added to the file. EXE to be used by the Turbo Debugger. 
  55. Display submenu Swapping [Smart] Appearances can be selected on the screen one of the 3 choices, Smart, Always or Never.
    • Smart: debugger will see the code being executed to see if it should display the results to the screen.
    • Always: This option will cause the screen to move every time a statement is executed.
    • Never: This option will notify debugger to not do the transfer screen. 
  56. Submenu Refresh Display: This option is used to recall the IDE screen. This is necessary, especially if you destroy the layout program that already exists in the display.
    Menu Break / Watch 
  57. Add submenu Watch [Ctrl + F7]: Used to add detail data, change or phrase into the watch window. 
  58. Delete submenu Watch: To remove the expression in the Watch window at this window visible. 
  59. Edit submenu Watch: This option would bring the position to watch the input box so that you can change it. 
  60. Submenu Remove All Watches: Remove all detailed in the watch window and minimize the size to a minimum. 
  61. Submenu Toggle Breakpoints [Ctrl + F8]: set a line as a breakpoint. In the breakpoint editor indicated by highlighted text. 
  62. Submenu Clear All Breakpoints: Removes all who have set a breakpoint. 
  63. Submenu View Next Breakpoint: Used to move the cursor to the next breakpoint position.
Basic Commands to Move a Cursor
Function Keys
Ctrl + S or left arrow
Ctrl + D atau right arrow
Ctrl + A or Ctrl + left arrow
Ctrl + F or Ctrl + right arrow
Ctrl + E or up arrow
Ctrl + X or down arrow
Ctrl + W
Ctrl + Z
Ctrl + R or PgUp
Ctrl + C or PgDown Move left one character
Move to the right one characterMove left one wordMove to the right one wordMoves up one lineMoving to a single line baahRotate the screen to the topRotate the screen downView the first previousThe next view the first

Additional cursor commands
Buttons Function
Ctrl + U
Ctrl + O + I atau Ctrl + Q + I
Ctrl + P
Ctrl + K + D atau Ctrl + K + Q
Ctrl + Q + F
Ctrl + Q + A
Ctrl + Qn
Ctrl + Q + W
Ctrl + O + O
Ctrl + F1
Ctrl + O + F
Ctrl + Q + [
Ctrl + Q + ]
Ctrl + L
Ctrl + Q + L
Ctrl + K + S atau F2
Ctrl + Kn
Ctrl + I atau Tab
Ctrl + O + T atau Ctrl + Q + T
Ctrl + O + U
Canceling eventsMeng - On or her - Off a autoindentInitial control charactersExit the editor without savingSearchedFinding and replacing wordsLooking for a place markerGo to the position errorInsert pointer compilerActivate the main menuLanguage AidUploadCharge On / Off in an optimalFore parentheses pairsCouple backward bracketsRepeats the last searchRestore lineStore and forwardSet the bookmark where theTabMode TabUnindent On / Off

Keys-Keys Full Operation Block
Buttons Function
Ctrl + K + Y
Ctrl + K + V
Ctrl + K + C
Ctrl + K + W
Ctrl + K + H
Ctrl + K + R
Ctrl + K + T
Ctrl + K + P
Ctrl + K + I
Ctrl + K + U
Removing blocksMove block to another placeDuplicate blocksMeyimpan blocks into the diskHide or show blocksRead blocks from disk to be merged in the mergeMarking the one-wordPrint a blockMengident blockMengunident block

Untuk lebih jelasnya tentang pengoperasian blok diatas, lebih baik kita langsung saja praktekan, disini saya akan memberikan contoh yang paling mudah yaitu mengkopi blok
Tampilan sebelum suatu blok dipilih Procedure FLU.GERAK samapai end [8 baris] akan dipilih sebagai blok. Maka kita letakkan kursor kita di huruf p di kata procedure dan kita tekan Ctrl + K + B. kemudian kursor dipindahkan ke tempat di sebelah kanan d dari kata end dan kita tekan Ctrl + K + K. maka tampilan akan berubah menjadi tampilan yang dibawah ini.
Tampilan setelah diblok Untuk mengkopi blok, tempatkanlah kursor dimana blok tersebut akan dikopi. Kemudian tekanlah Ctrl + K + C maka blok akan dikopi. Begitu juga dengan perintah blok yang lain, caranya sama dengan teknik pengkopian diatas…
Tampilan sesudah di kopi Nah, itulah sekilas tentang Editor di dalam Turbo Pascal, semoga bisa membantu anda yang menyukai pascal dan yang belum mencoba silahkan mencoba karena gak ada salahnya anda memiliki ilmu yang banyak….. Dan tunggu edisi berikutnya….